Thursday, 4 October 2012

String Theory: Introduction

In the world of physics, there are always contests and divisions of thought, factions of people supporting different theories of why the universe is the way it is. Physics is divided into two different realms the macroscopic (large) world for things like gravity and then the quantum world (very small) where Quantum-chrono-dynamics (QCD) and Quantum gravity exist. With string theory, devised by Michael Duff, Michael Green and Brian Green et al, tried to unify these two worlds, the world of the macroscopic and quantum world to create a “theory of everything”, which works as a self sustained and self sustained mathematical model, which can allow for the description of the 12 fundamental forces and the different forms of matter.

String theory when first devised, was lead with some severe controversy. Scientists would not touch the subject let alone research it, due to the major consensus boycotting the research. People’s jobs and careers were on the line, chancing such an endeavor. But in the last 10 years, Sting theory has taken a big turn, making the topic much more serious and for respected academics to start brain storming about it.

 Fig.1 A Graphical representation of a vibrating string

In the Universe scientists have discovered that it is made up of two groups or very small important (Fundamental) particles, these are called the boson and fermions. With bosons, that are carriers of the fundamental forces, pertaining to, Strong/Weak nuclear forces, E.M Forces (Electromagnetic) and Gravity(the weaker of the 4 forces).  With fermions they are actually the matter that you can see such as atoms, molecules in all its configurations.

The standard model, which has been herald as the most stable and accurate scientific theory thought of, allowing for the explanation of the forces except for the force of gravity. As mentioned in previous post the inside of a black hole the mathematics breaks down in the singularity. This is simply because the standard model cannot explain the math and physics behind the mechanics of a singularities from a gravitational point of view. This also applied to the big bang theory as well.

A word that some people might of heard from time to time, and probably left them confused is the word super symmetry, this an important part of string theory. This is need for the string theory to actually work, where the concept that matter (particles) have a corresponding force.

More of will be covered in the next post. As this will a multiple post topic


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